Tuesday, January 21, 2020
NEXRAD Radar Ã In the 1950's, the government appropriated money for the building ofÃ Ã Ã weather radar (also known as WSR-57) stations at strategic locations,Ã Ã usually airports, all across the U.S. Those performed well for the era in which they were used. In the 1990's, new technology was updatingÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã everything except weather radar. While Pentium-run computers were plotting scientist's data on color monitors, meteorologists were guessing the movement of thunderstorms on monochrome screens. Because the radar needed to be updated, the Federal Airline Administration and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration pulled together money to create a better radar system. This new radar was called NEXRAD (Next Generation Weather Radar) or WSR-88D. Because of this change in technology, more aspects of the weather can be seen and analyzed that in turn save lives. NEXRAD technology is amazing. It can show the motion of rain, sleet, hail and even dust or insects moving towards or away from the radar's antenna. It can detect strong changes in wind direction inside a thunderstorm that could indicate the beginning of tornadic activity. The WSR-57 could never do this. The 88D can track precipitation totals over various periods of time and locations and can track wind speed and direction at various altitudes. The new radar has improved sensitivity and resolution. It can make the invisible wind of a storm visible even if there is no precipitation present. The old radar never had these capabilities and also left 33% of all tornadoes unnoticed. Now that NEXRAD is in place, the percentage has dropped to 13% nationally. Also, offices with WSR-88D radar are issuing fewer severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings that turn out to be false alarms. In Norman, Oklahoma, the false alarm rate dropped from 80% in the 1980's to 18% in 1992 (Williams 43 -46). To understand how NEXRAD receives its images, it is important to know how NEXRAD works. First, it sends radio waves into the surrounding area. Once the radio waves hit something, they bounce back. If precipitation is moving towards the station, it increases the radio waves' frequency. If the wind is blowing precipitation away from the station, the frequency of reflected radio waves is lowered. Doppler radar (NEXRAD) detects these frequency changes and uses them to show wind and precipitation patterns (Williams 176-179). Technology - NEXRAD Radar :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers NEXRAD Radar Ã In the 1950's, the government appropriated money for the building ofÃ Ã Ã weather radar (also known as WSR-57) stations at strategic locations,Ã Ã usually airports, all across the U.S. Those performed well for the era in which they were used. In the 1990's, new technology was updatingÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã everything except weather radar. While Pentium-run computers were plotting scientist's data on color monitors, meteorologists were guessing the movement of thunderstorms on monochrome screens. Because the radar needed to be updated, the Federal Airline Administration and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration pulled together money to create a better radar system. This new radar was called NEXRAD (Next Generation Weather Radar) or WSR-88D. Because of this change in technology, more aspects of the weather can be seen and analyzed that in turn save lives. NEXRAD technology is amazing. It can show the motion of rain, sleet, hail and even dust or insects moving towards or away from the radar's antenna. It can detect strong changes in wind direction inside a thunderstorm that could indicate the beginning of tornadic activity. The WSR-57 could never do this. The 88D can track precipitation totals over various periods of time and locations and can track wind speed and direction at various altitudes. The new radar has improved sensitivity and resolution. It can make the invisible wind of a storm visible even if there is no precipitation present. The old radar never had these capabilities and also left 33% of all tornadoes unnoticed. Now that NEXRAD is in place, the percentage has dropped to 13% nationally. Also, offices with WSR-88D radar are issuing fewer severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings that turn out to be false alarms. In Norman, Oklahoma, the false alarm rate dropped from 80% in the 1980's to 18% in 1992 (Williams 43 -46). To understand how NEXRAD receives its images, it is important to know how NEXRAD works. First, it sends radio waves into the surrounding area. Once the radio waves hit something, they bounce back. If precipitation is moving towards the station, it increases the radio waves' frequency. If the wind is blowing precipitation away from the station, the frequency of reflected radio waves is lowered. Doppler radar (NEXRAD) detects these frequency changes and uses them to show wind and precipitation patterns (Williams 176-179).
Monday, January 13, 2020
This research was commissioned by the Transatlantic Council on Migration, an initiative of the Migration Policy Institute (MPI), for its seventh plenary meeting, held November 2011 in Berlin. The meetingÃ¢â¬â¢s theme was Ã¢â¬Å"National Identity, Immigration, and Social Cohesion: (Re)building Community in an Ever-Globalizing WorldÃ¢â¬ and this paper was one of the reports that informed the CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s discussions. The Council, an MPI initiative undertaken in cooperation with its policy partner the Bertelsmann Stiftung, is a unique deliberative body that examines vital policy issues and informs migration policymaking processes in North America and Europe. The CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s work is generously supported by the following foundations and governments: Carnegie Corporation of New York, Open Society Foundations, Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Barrow Cadbury Trust (UK Policy Partner), the Luso-American Development Foundation, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, and the governments of Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. For more on the Transatlantic Council on Migration, please visit: www. migrationpolicy. org/transatlantic. Ã © 2012 Migration Policy Institute. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the Migration Policy Institute. A full-text PDF of this document is available for free download from www. migrationpolicy. org. Permission for reproducing excerpts from this report should be directed to: Permissions Department, Migration Policy Institute, 1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036, or by contacting communications@migrationpolicy. org. Suggested citation: Kymlicka, Will. 2012. Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Table of Contents Executive SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 1 I. IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2 The Rise and Fall of MulticulturalismÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 3 . II. What Is Multiculturalism?Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 4 A. Misleading ModelÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4 . B. Multiculturalism in ContextÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 5 . C. The Evolution of Multiculturalism PoliciesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 7 III. Multiculturalism in PracticeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 10 A. The Canadian Success StoryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 10 B. The European ExperienceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 13 . IV. The Retreat from MulticulturalismÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. . 14 A. Rhetoric versus Reality Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 14 B. Proliferation of Civic Integration PoliciesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 15 . V. Conclusion:The Future of Multicultural CitizenshipÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 21 AppendicesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 26 Works CitedÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 28 About the AuthorÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 32 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Executive Summary Ideas about the legal and political accommodation of ethnic diversity Ã¢â¬â commonly termed Ã¢â¬Å"multiculturalismÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â emerged in the West as a vehicle for replacing older forms of ethnic and racial hierarchy with new relations of democratic citizenship. Despite substantial evidence that these policies are making progress toward that goal, a chorus of political leaders has declared them a failure and heralded the death of multiculturalism. This popular master narrative is problematic because it mischaracterizes the nature of the experiments in multiculturalism that have been undertaken, exaggerates the extent to which they have been abandoned, and misidentifies not only the genuine difficulties and limitations they have encountered but the options for addressing these problems. Talk about the retreat from multiculturalism has obscured the fact that a form of multicultural integration remains a live option for Western democracies. This report challenges four powerful myths about multiculturalism. First, it disputes the caricature of multiculturalism as the uncritical celebration of diversity at the expense of addressing grave societal problems such as unemployment and social isolation. Instead it offers an account of multiculturalism as the pursuit of new relations of democratic citizenship, inspired and constrained by human-rights ideals. Second, it contests the idea that multiculturalism has been in wholesale retreat, and offers instead evidence that multiculturalism policies (MCPs) have persisted, and have even grown stronger, over the past ten years. Third, it challenges the idea that multiculturalism has failed, and offers instead evidence that MCPs have had positive effects. Fourth, it disputes the idea that the spread of civic integration policies has displaced multiculturalism or rendered it obsolete. The report instead offers evidence that MCPs are fully consistent with certain forms of civic integration policies, and that indeed the combination of multiculturalism with an Ã¢â¬Å"enablingÃ¢â¬ form of civic integration is both normatively desirable and empirically effective in at least some cases. To help address these issues, this paper draws upon the Multiculturalism Policy Index. This index 1) identifies eight concrete policy areas where liberal-democratic states Ã¢â¬â faced with a choice Ã¢â¬â decided to develop more multicultural forms of citizenship in relation to immigrant groups and 2) measures the extent to which countries have espoused some or all of these policies over time. While there have been some high-profile cases of retreat from MCPs, such as the Netherlands, the general pattern from 1980 to 2010 has been one of modest strengthening. Ironically, some countries that have been vociferous about multiculturalismÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"failureÃ¢â¬ (e. g. , Germany) have not actually practiced an active multicultural strategy. Talk about the retreat from multiculturalism has obscured the fact that a form of multicultural integration remains a live option for Western democracies. However, not all attempts to adopt new models of multicultural citizenship have taken root or succeeded in achieving their intended effects. There are several factors that can either facilitate or impede the successful implementation of multiculturalism: Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 1 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Desecuritization of ethnic relations. Multiculturalism works best if relations between the state and minorities are seen as an issue of social policy, not as an issue of state security. If the state perceives immigrants to be a security threat (such as Arabs and Muslims after 9/11), support for multiculturalism will drop and the space for minorities to even voice multicultural claims will diminish. Human rights. Support for multiculturalism rests on the assumption that there is a shared commitment to human rights across ethnic and religious lines. If states perceive certain groups as unable or unwilling to respect human-rights norms, they are unlikely to accord them multicultural rights or resources. Much of the backlash against multiculturalism is fundamentally driven by anxieties about Muslims, in particular, and their perceived unwillingness to embrace liberal-democratic norms. Border control. Multiculturalism is more controversial when citizens fear they lack control over their borders Ã¢â¬â for instance when countries are faced with large numbers (or unexpected surges) of unauthorized immigrants or asylum seekers Ã¢â¬â than when citizens feel the borders are secure. Diversity of immigrant groups. Multiculturalism works best when it is genuinely multicultural Ã¢â¬â that is, when immigrants come from many source countries rather than coming overwhelmingly from just one (which is more likely to lead to polarized relations with the majority). Economic contributions. Support for multiculturalism depends on the perception that immigrants are holding up their end of the bargain and making a good-faith effort to contribute to society Ã¢â¬â particularly economically. When these facilitating conditions are present, multiculturalism can be seen as a low-risk option, and indeed seems to have worked well in such cases. Multiculturalism tends to lose support in high-risk situations where immigrants are seen as predominantly illegal, as potential carriers of illiberal practices or movements, or as net burdens on the welfare state. However, one could argue that rejecting immigrant multiculturalism under these circumstances is in fact the higher-risk move. It is precisely when immigrants are perceived as illegitimate, illiberal, and burdensome that multiculturalism may be most needed. I. Introduction Ideas about the legal and political accommodation of ethnic diversity have been in a state of flux around the world for the past 40 years. One hears much about the Ã¢â¬Å"rise and fall of multiculturalism. Ã¢â¬ Indeed, this has become a kind of master narrative, widely invoked by scholars, journalists, and policymakers alike to explain the evolution of contemporary debates about diversity. Although people disagree about what comes after multiculturalism, there is a surprising consensus that we are in a post-multicultural era. This report contends that this master narrative obscures as much as it reveals, and that we need an alternative framework for thinking about the choices we face. MulticulturalismÃ¢â¬â¢s successes and failures, as well as its level of public acceptance, have depended on the nature of the issues at stake and the countries involved, and we need to understand these variations if we are to identify a more sustainable model for accommodating diversity. This paper will argue that the master narrative 1) mischaracterizes the nature of the experiments in multiculturalism that have been undertaken, 2) exaggerates the extent to which they have been abandoned, and 3) misidentifies the genuine difficulties and limitations they have encountered and the options for addressing these problems. 2 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Before we can decide whether to celebrate or lament the fall of multiculturalism, we need first to make sure we know what multiculturalism has meant both in theory and in practice, where it has succeeded or failed to meet its objectives, and under what conditions it is likely to thrive in the future. The Rise and Fall of Multiculturalism The master narrative of the Ã¢â¬Å"rise and fall of multiculturalismÃ¢â¬ helpfully captures important features of our current debates. Yet in some respects it is misleading, and may obscure the real challenges and opportunities we face. In its simplest form, the master narrative goes like this:1 Since the mid-1990s Ã¢â¬ ¦ we have seen a backlash and retreat from multiculturalism. From the 1970s to mid-1990s, there was a clear trend across Western democracies toward the increased recognition and accommodation of diversity through a range of multiculturalism policies (MCPs) and minority rights. These policies were endorsed both at the domestic level in some states and by international organizations, and involved a rejection of earlier ideas of unitary and homogeneous nationhood. Since the mid-1990s, however, we have seen a backlash and retreat from multiculturalism, and a reassertion of ideas of nation building, common values and identity, and unitary citizenship Ã¢â¬â even a call for the Ã¢â¬Å"return of assimilation. Ã¢â¬ This retreat is partly driven by fears among the majority group that the accommodation of diversity has Ã¢â¬Å"gone too farÃ¢â¬ and is threatening their way of life. This fear often expresses itself in the rise of nativist and populist right-wing political movements, such as the Danish PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Party, defending old ideas of Ã¢â¬Å"Denmark for the Danish. Ã¢â¬ But the retreat also reflects a belief among the center-left that multiculturalism has failed to help the intended beneficiaries Ã¢â¬â namely, minorities themselves Ã¢â¬â because it has failed to address the underlying sources of their social, economic, and political exclusion and may have unintentionally contributed to their social isolation. As a result, even the center-left political movements that initially championed multiculturalism, such as the social democratic parties in Europe, have backed 1 For influential academic statements of this Ã¢â¬Å"rise and fallÃ¢â¬ narrative, claiming that it applies across the Western democracies, see Rogers Brubaker, Ã¢â¬Å"The Return of Assimilation? Ã¢â¬ Ethnic and Racial Studies 24, no. 4 (2001): 531Ã¢â¬â48; and Christian Joppke, Ã¢â¬Å"The Retreat of Multiculturalism in the Liberal State: Theory and Policy,Ã¢â¬ British Journal of Sociology 55, no. 2 (2004): 237Ã¢â¬â57. There are also many accounts of the Ã¢â¬Å"decline,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"retreat,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"crisisÃ¢â¬ of multiculturalism in particular countries. For the Netherlands, see Han Entzinger, Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise and Fall of Multiculturalism in the Netherlands,Ã¢â¬ in Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States, eds. Christian Joppke and Ewa Morawska (London: Palgrave, 2003) and Ruud Koopmans, Ã¢â¬Å"Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: The Crisis of Dutch Multiculturalism in Cross-National PerspectiveÃ¢â¬ (Brief, Danish Institute for International Studies, Copenhagen, December 2006). For Britain, see Randall Hansen, Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity, Integration and the Turn from Multiculturalism in the United Kingdom,Ã¢â¬ in Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada, eds. Keith G. Banting, Thomas J. Courchene, and F. Leslie Seidle (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2007); Les Back, Michael Keith, Azra Khan, Kalbir Shukra, and John Solomos, Ã¢â¬Å"New LabourÃ¢â¬â¢s White Heart: Politics, Multiculturalism and the Return of Assimilation,Ã¢â¬ Political Quarterly 73, No. 4 (2002): 445Ã¢â¬â54; Steven Vertovec, Ã¢â¬Å"Towards post-multiculturalism? Changing communities, conditions and contexts of diversity,Ã¢â¬ International Social Science Journal 61 (2010): 83Ã¢â¬â95. For Australia, see Ien Ang and John Stratton, Ã¢â¬Å"Multiculturalism in Crisis: The New Politics of Race and National Identity in Australia,Ã¢â¬ in On Not Speaking Chinese: Living Between Asia and the West, ed. I. Ang (London: Routledge, 2001). For Canada, see Lloyd Wong, Joseph Garcea, and Anna Kirova, An Analysis of the Ã¢â¬ËAnti- and Post-MulticulturalismÃ¢â¬â¢ Discourses: The Fragmentation Position (Alberta: Prairie Centre for Excellence in Research on Immigration and Integration, 2005), http://pmc. metropolis. net/Virtual%20Library/FinalReports/Post-multi%20FINAL%20REPORT%20for%20PCERII%20_2_. pdf. For a good overview of the backlash discourse in various countries, see Steven Vertovec and Susan Wessendorf, eds. , The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices (London: Routledge, 2010). Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 3 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE away from it and shifted to a discourse that emphasizes Ã¢â¬Å"civic integration,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"social cohesion,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"common values,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"shared citizenship. Ã¢â¬ 2 The social-democratic discourse of civic integration differs from the radical-right discourse in emphasizing the need to develop a more inclusive national identity and to fight racism and discrimination, but it nonetheless distances itself from the rhetoric and policies of multiculturalism. The term postmulticulturalism has often been invoked to signal this new approach, which seeks to overcome the limits of a naive or misguided multiculturalism while avoiding the oppressive reassertion of homogenizing nationalist ideologies. 3 II. What Is Multiculturalism? A. Misleading Model In much of the post-multiculturalist literature, multiculturalism is characterized as a feel-good celebration of ethnocultural diversity, encouraging citizens to acknowledge and embrace the panoply of customs, traditions, music, and cuisine that exist in a multiethnic society. Yasmin Alibhai-Brown calls this the Ã¢â¬Å"3SÃ¢â¬ model of multiculturalism in Britain Ã¢â¬â saris, samosas, and steeldrums. 4 Multiculturalism takes these familiar cultural markers of ethnic groups Ã¢â¬â clothing, cuisine, and music Ã¢â¬â and treats them as authentic practices to be preserved by their members and safely consumed by others. Under the banner of multiculturalism they are taught in school, performed in festivals, displayed in media and museums, and so on. This celebratory model of multiculturalism has been the focus of many critiques, including the following: It ignores issues of economic and political inequality. Even if all Britons come to enjoy Jamaican steeldrum music or Indian samosas, this would do nothing to address the real problems facing Caribbean and South Asian communities in Britain Ã¢â¬â problems of unemployment, poor educational outcomes, residential segregation, poor English language skills, and political marginalization. These economic and political issues cannot be solved simply by celebrating cultural differences. Even with respect to the (legitimate) goal of promoting greater understanding of cultural differences, the focus on celebrating Ã¢â¬Å"authenticÃ¢â¬ cultural practices that are Ã¢â¬Å"uniqueÃ¢â¬ to each group is potentially dangerous. First, not all customs that may be traditionally practiced within a particular group are worthy of being celebrated, or even of being legally tolerated, such as forced marriage. To avoid stirring up controversy, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a tendency to choose as the focus of multicultural celebrations safely inoffensive practices Ã¢â¬â such as cuisine or music Ã¢â¬â that can be enjoyably consumed by members of the larger society. But this runs the opposite risk 2 For an overview of the attitudes of European social democratic parties to these issues, see Rene Cuperus, Karl Duffek, and Johannes Kandel, eds. , The Challenge of Diversity: European Social Democracy Facing Migration, Integration and Multiculturalism (Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2003). For references to Ã¢â¬Å"post-multiculturalismÃ¢â¬ by progressive intellectuals, who distinguish it from the radical rightÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"antimulticulturalism,Ã¢â¬ see, regarding the United Kingdom, Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism (London: Foreign Policy Centre, 2000), and Ã¢â¬Å"Beyond Multiculturalism,Ã¢â¬ Canadian Diversity/Diversite Canadienne 3, no. 2 (2004): 51Ã¢â¬â4; regarding Australia, James Jupp, From White Australia to Woomera: The Story of Australian Immigration, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007); and regarding the United States, Desmond King, The Liberty of Strangers: Making the American Nation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), and David A. Hollinger, Post-ethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism, revised edition (New York: Basic Books, 2006). Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism. 3 4 4 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE of the trivialization or Disneyfication of cultural differences,5 ignoring the real challenges that differences in cultural and religious values can raise. Third, the 3S model of multiculturalism can encourage a conception of groups as hermetically sealed and static, each reproducing its own distinct practices. Multiculturalism may be intended to encourage people to share their customs, but the assumption that each group has its own distinctive customs ignores processes of cultural adaptation, mixing, and melange, as well as emerging cultural commonalities, thereby potentially reinforcing perceptions of minorities as eternally Ã¢â¬Å"other. Ã¢â¬ This in turn can lead to the strengthening of prejudice and stereotyping, and more generally to the polarization of ethnic relations. Fourth, this model can end up reinforcing power inequalities and cultural restrictions within minority groups. In deciding which traditions are Ã¢â¬Å"authentic,Ã¢â¬ and how to interpret and display them, the state generally consults the traditional elites within the group Ã¢â¬â typically older males Ã¢â¬â while ignoring the way these traditional practices (and traditional elites) are often challenged by internal reformers, who have different views about how, say, a Ã¢â¬Å"good MuslimÃ¢â¬ should act. It can therefore imprison people in Ã¢â¬Å"cultural scriptsÃ¢â¬ that they are not allowed to question or dispute. According to post-multiculturalists, the growing recognition of these flaws underlies the retreat from multiculturalism and signals the search for new models of citizenship that emphasize 1) political participation and economic opportunities over the symbolic politics of cultural recognition, 2) human rights and individual freedom over respect for cultural traditions, 3) the building of inclusive national identities over the recognition of ancestral cultural identities, and 4) cultural change and cultural mixing over the reification of static cultural differences. This narrative about the rise and fall of 3S multiculturalism will no doubt be familiar to many readers. In my view, however, it is inaccurate. Not only is it a caricature of the reality of multiculturalism as it has developed over the past 40 years in the Western democracies, but it is a distraction from the real issues that we need to face. The 3S model captures something important about natural human tendencies to simplify ethnic differences, and about the logic of global capitalism to sell cosmopolitan cultural products, but it does not capture the nature of post-1960s government MCPs, which have had more complex historical sources and political goals. B. Multiculturalism in Context It is important to put multiculturalism in its historical context. In one sense, it is as old as humanity Ã¢â¬â different cultures have always found ways of coexisting, and respect for diversity was a familiar feature of many historic empires, such as the Ottoman Empire. But the sort of multiculturalism that is said to have had a Ã¢â¬Å"rise and fallÃ¢â¬ is a more specific historic phenomenon, emerging first in the Western democracies in the late 1960s. This timing is important, for it helps us situate multiculturalism in relation to larger social transformations of the postwar era. More specifically, multiculturalism is part of a larger human-rights revolution involving ethnic and racial diversity. Prior to World War II, ethnocultural and religious diversity in the West was characterized by a range of illiberal and undemocratic relationships of hierarchy,6 justified by racialist ideologies that explicitly propounded the superiority of some peoples and cultures and their right to rule over others. These ideologies were widely accepted throughout the Western world and underpinned both domestic laws (e. g. , racially biased immigration and citizenship policies) and foreign policies (e. g. , in relation to overseas colonies). 5 6 Neil Bissoondath, Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada (Toronto: Penguin, 1994). Including relations of conqueror and conquered, colonizer and colonized, master and slave, settler and indigenous, racialized and unmarked, normalized and deviant, orthodox and heretic, civilized and primitive, and ally and enemy. Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 5 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE After World War II, however, the world recoiled against HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s fanatical and murderous use of such ideologies, and the United Nations decisively repudiated them in favor of a new ideology of the equality of races and peoples. And this new assumption of human equality generated a series of political movements designed to contest the lingering presence or enduring effects of older hierarchies. We can distinguish three Ã¢â¬Å"wavesÃ¢â¬ of such movements: 1) the struggle for decolonization, concentrated in the period 1948Ã¢â¬â65; 2) the struggle against racial segregation and discrimination, initiated and exemplified by the AfricanAmerican civil-rights movement from 1955 to 1965; and 3) the struggle for multiculturalism and minority rights, which emerged in the late 1960s. Multiculturalism is part of a larger human-rights revolution involving ethnic and racial diversity. Each of these movements draws upon the human-rights revolution, and its foundational ideology of the equality of races and peoples, to challenge the legacies of earlier ethnic and racial hierarchies. Indeed, the human-rights revolution plays a double role here, not just as the inspiration for a struggle, but also as a constraint on the permissible goals and means of that struggle. Insofar as historically excluded or stigmatized groups struggle against earlier hierarchies in the name of equality, they too have to renounce their own traditions of exclusion or oppression in the treatment of, say, women, gays, people of mixed race, religious dissenters, and so on. Human rights, and liberal-democratic constitutionalism more generally, provide the overarching framework within which these struggles are debated and addressed. Each of these movements, therefore, can be seen as contributing to a process of democratic Ã¢â¬Å"citizenizationÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â that is, turning the earlier catalog of hierarchical relations into relationships of liberaldemocratic citizenship. This entails transforming both the vertical relationships between minorities and the state and the horizontal relationships among the members of different groups. In the past, it was often assumed that the only way to engage in this process of citizenization was to impose a single undifferentiated model of citizenship on all individuals. But the ideas and policies of multiculturalism that emerged from the 1960s start from the assumption that this complex history inevitably and appropriately generates group-differentiated ethnopolitical claims. The key to citizenization is not to suppress these differential claims but to filter them through and frame them within the language of human rights, civil liberties, and democratic accountability. And this is what multiculturalist movements have aimed to do. The precise character of the resulting multicultural reforms varies from group to group, as befits the distinctive history that each has faced. They all start from the antidiscrimination principle that underpinned the second wave but go beyond it to challenge other forms of exclusion or stigmatization. In most Western countries, explicit state-sponsored discrimination against ethnic, racial, or religious minorities had largely ceased by the 1960s and 1970s, under the influence of the second wave of humanrights struggles. Yet ethnic and racial hierarchies persist in many societies, whether measured in terms of economic inequalities, political underrepresentation, social stigmatization, or cultural invisibility. Various forms of multiculturalism have been developed to help overcome these lingering inequalities. The focus in this report is on multiculturalism as it pertains to (permanently settled) immigrant groups,7 7 There was briefly in some European countries a form of Ã¢â¬Å"multiculturalismÃ¢â¬ that was not aimed at the inclusion of permanent immigrants, but rather at ensuring that temporary migrants would return to their country of origin. For example, mothertongue education in Germany was not initially introduced Ã¢â¬Å"as a minority right but in order to enable guest worker children to reintegrate in their countries of originÃ¢â¬ (Karen Schonwalder, Ã¢â¬Å"Germany: Integration Policy and Pluralism in a Self-Conscious Country of Immigration,Ã¢â¬ in The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices, eds. Steven Vertovec and Susanne Wessendorf [London: Routledge, 2010], 160). Needless to say, this sort of Ã¢â¬Å"returnistÃ¢â¬ multiculturalism Ã¢â¬â premised on the idea that migrants are foreigners who should return to their real home Ã¢â¬â has nothing to do with multiculturalism policies (MCPs) premised on the idea that immigrants belong in their host countries, and which aim to make immigrants 6 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE but it is worth noting that struggles for multicultural citizenship have also emerged in relation to historic minorities and indigenous peoples. 8 C. The Evolution of Multiculturalism Policies The case of immigrant multiculturalism is just one aspect of a larger Ã¢â¬Å"ethnic revivalÃ¢â¬ across the Western democracies,9 in which different types of minorities have struggled for new forms of multicultural citizenship that combine both antidiscrimination measures and positive forms of recognition and accommodation. Multicultural citizenship for immigrant groups clearly does not involve the same types of claims as for indigenous peoples or national minorities: immigrant groups do not typically seek land rights, territorial autonomy, or official language status. What then is the substance of multicultural citizenship in relation to immigrant groups? The Multiculturalism Policy Index is one attempt to measure the evolution of MCPs in a standardized format that enables comparative research. 10 The index takes the following eight policies as the most common or emblematic forms of immigrant MCPs:11 Constitutional, legislative, or parliamentary affirmation of multiculturalism, at the central and/ or regional and municipal levels The adoption of multiculturalism in school curricula The inclusion of ethnic representation/sensitivity in the mandate of public media or media licensing Exemptions from dress codes, either by statute or by court cases Allowing of dual citizenship The funding of ethnic group organizations to support cultural activities The funding of bilingual education or mother-tongue instruction Affirmative action for disadvantaged immigrant groups12 feel more at home where they are. The focus of this paper is on the latter type of multiculturalism, which is centrally concerned with constructing new relations of citizenship. 8 In relation to indigenous peoples, for example Ã¢â¬â such as the Maori in New Zealand, Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Australia, American Indians, the Sami in Scandinavia, and the Inuit of Greenland Ã¢â¬â new models of multicultural citizenship have emerged since the late 1960s that include policies such as land rights, self-government rights, recognition of customary laws, and guarantees of political consultation. And in relation to substate national groups Ã¢â¬â such as the Basques and Catalans in Spain, Flemish and Walloons in Belgium, Scots and Welsh in Britain, Quebecois in Canada, Germans in South Tyrol, Swedish in Finland Ã¢â¬â we see new models of multicultural citizenship that include policies such as federal or quasi-federal territorial autonomy; official language status, either in the region or nationally; and guarantees of representation in the central government or on constitutional courts. 9 Anthony Smith, The Ethnic Revival in the Modern World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). 10 Keith Banting and I developed this index, first published in Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, eds. , Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). Many of the ideas discussed in this paper are the result of our collaboration. 11 As with all cross-national indices, there is a trade-off between standardization and sensitivity to local nuances. There is no universally accepted definition of multiculturalism policies and no hard and fast line that would sharply distinguish MCPs from closely related policy fields, such as antidis
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The Cold War: An Inspiration for Years to Come All throughout time and history people have been at war with each other at one point or another. War can, truthfully, at times be inescapable and considered by some historians as a natural instinct, an instinct that every human being possess. Throughout history mighty empires and governments have collapsed due to the damages inflicted on by a war, yet in spite of this, some have managed to face the odds and make it through, staggering along as if nothing happened. War is a true test of an empire or governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to move forward, adapting using the knowledge and intellect they have acquired to their own advantage. Nevertheless, not all wars lead to fighting by physical means butÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦and U.S.S.R. (CrashCourse; Spielvogel 631-635). The countries of Belgium, Luxembourg, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland fearing an attack from the Soviet Union, s igned a treaty with the U.S. and Canada forming NATO agreeing to help each other if any one of them was attacked (Spielvogel 634). The Soviet Union responded by joining in an alliance with Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania which became known as the Warsaw Pact (Spielvogel 634). These alliances led to the United States involvement numerous wars that were yet to come (Spielvogel 635). In Asia, China had fallen to Communism which came as shocker to many American (Appleby et al. 787). This fear of Communist expansion led to the United States intervention in the Korea and Vietnam Wars (Ã¢â¬Å"Cold WarÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"U.S. policy makers saw the Vietnam War in terms of a domino theory. If Communists succeeded in South VietnamÃ¢â¬ ¦ other countries in Asia would fall like dominoes to CommunismÃ¢â¬ (Spielvogel 636). The United States failure to stop Vietnam from becoming communism showed the extent of its power (Appleby et al. 787). Ã¢â¬Å"Th e threat of nuclear annihilation had a great impact on American domestic lifeÃ¢â¬ ¦People built bomb shelters Ã¢â¬ ¦ practiced attack drillsÃ¢â¬ ¦In these and other ways, theShow MoreRelatedThe Little Match Girl By Hans Christian Andersen1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfictional story stimulated from his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood. Others say his inspiration came from a calendar with a girl holding matches(Ã¢â¬Å"SurLaLuneÃ¢â¬ ). In this story, a young girl lives in an impoverished family. She sells matches to bring some money to the family. She lives in fear to go home without any sales. She lost her shoes and did not wear a heavy coat because she did not have one. She seems to have nothing and no one in a cold world (Isadora). However, she is not without her hope that happinessRead MoreThe War Of The Cold War1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAs one war ends, another returns. After the end of World War II in 1945, a new conflict arose. Known as the Cold War, this conflict had threatened th e globe for over 45 years. The Cold War put its two greatest powers-the Democratic United States and the Soviet Union- against each other. Each countries military power, scientific knowledge, and technology were put to the test in the Cold War. Even though there was few military wars, the Cold War still remains a mark on our history. The first actionRead MoreAre You A Fan Of The Supernatural? Do You Believe In Things1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesscary vampire to more glamorized characters with a sexy persona such as Edward from Twilight. Vlad III, prince of Wallachia, was an evil and sadistic dictator in the 15th century. Better known as Vlad the Impaler, he would become the real-life inspiration for Dracula, the most famous vampire in film. Although Vlad was not a blood-thirsty vampire, he was evil and dishonorable, and he killed thousands of people in his life. Ã¢â¬Å"To consolidate his power as voivode, Vlad needed to quell the incessant conflictsRead MoreThe Danger Of The Atomic Bombs974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesatomic bombs. Japan was the only country that suffered the effects of the atomic bombs. Not only did they have to cope with the fear of the nuclear bomb, but, with the effect of the bomb. Yet, the United States also needed a coping mechanism for cold war paranoia, and fear of science. Thus, the creation of Ã¢â¬Å"Them!Ã¢â¬ giant mutated ants that symbolized Americans fears. These films use the symbolism of destruction to show their fear and belief in the dangers of using science to make things such as nuc learRead MoreInspirational Tools Of An Inspiration Leader1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRobert King ENG W131 9/14/15 The Inspirational tools of an Inspiration Leader Intro On January 20, 1961, President John F. Kennedy was sworn into office and delivered one of the most famous and remembered inaugural addresses in U.S. history. Kennedy was motivated to calm fears about the rise of Soviet power during the 1950`s. With his elaborated speech he called upon American citizens to act in support of their government. The motivation for American citizens to defend freedom and democracy introducedRead MoreEssay about A Raisin in the Sun1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSet in post World War II Southside Chicago, HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s drama explores the conflict that arises within an African American family when Mama, the familys matriarch, receives a $10,000 life insurance settlement and spends a portion of it to buy a home in the restricted white neighborhood of Clybourne Park. However, HansberryÃ¢â¬â¢s play not only highlighted the issue of housing segregation, but also foreshadowed the impending civil and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movements. Indeed, more than four years prior to MartinRead MoreWhat Every Person Should Know About War1009 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSince the dawn of Homo sapiens war has been waging somewhere in the world almost non-stop till the present time. In the New York Times archive Ã¢â¬ËWhat Every Person Should Know About War written by Chris Hedges it states, Ã¢â¬Å"Of the past 3,400 years, humans have been entirely at peace for 268 of them, or just 8 percent of recorded history.Ã¢â¬ There is no Ã¢â¬Ëwar geneÃ¢â¬â¢ in humans, but in a way it has become almost second nature for us to use war when two or more opposing sides come to a disagreement. AccordingRead MoreRay Bradbury s Writing Is Loved By Many, And Read By Students And Teachers Across The Globe1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbest literature. Though Bradbury wrote many famous pieces of literature including (but not limited to) Fahrenheit 451, The Illustrated Man and Something Wicked This Way Comes, the main focus of this essay is his short story There Will Come Soft Rains. This is a short story, telling what the world would be like after a nuclear war when robots have taken over, and all life was wiped off of earth. This paper will be explaining further the connection between bradbury and his style of writing and topicsRead MoreDifferences Between Du Bois And Marcus Garvey1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAfrica divided to control the economics and natural resources. The Cold War gave new importance to the voices of African Americans in world affairs. Du Bois represented alternative strategies for responding to this opportunity. Du Bois was highly critical of American policy. For a half a century, he had linked the fate of African Americans with that of Africans, and by 1945 was widely hailed as the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of Pan-AfricanismÃ¢â¬ In that year he directed the Fifth Pan-African Congress, which met in ManchesterRead MoreEssay On The Journey Of The Military1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIt was a cold and dark Novembers day, I remember it well. The man y gathered round shivered as another barrage of cold, chilling wind raced through the camp seeking a lone man lost in the woods. No-one knew how many were still out there in that snow covered field, and none of us wanted to return just hours after the fall of many a comrade. It is common knowledge that one does not mess with the lion that has just caught itÃ¢â¬â¢s prey. For a short time I thought the world had actually stopped turning and
Friday, December 27, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Euthanasia is the practice of ending the life of a patient to limit the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering. The patient in question would typically be terminally ill or experiencing great pain and suffering. The word Ã¢â¬Å"euthanasiaÃ¢â¬ itself comes from the Greek words Ã¢â¬Å"euÃ¢â¬ (good) and Ã¢â¬Å"thanatosÃ¢â¬ (death). The idea is that instead of condemning someone to a slow, painful, and undignified death, euthanasia would allow the patient to experience a relatively good death.Ã¢â¬ The technical definition of euthanasia is the act of ending life painlessly, often someone suffering from an incurable illness. However it is impossible for any life to end free from pain. The actual killing may be peaceful, but the suffering endured throughout the disease will never beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Human life is invaluable and doctors should not be involved directly in causing death. The trust a patient has in their doctor is unlike any other bond because the patient trusts the physician with their life. In order to become a doctor, physicians must recite the Hippocratic Oath which begins with the words, Ã¢â¬Å"First, do no harm.Ã¢â¬ (Messerli 1). Participating in a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide would obviously break this oath. This occurred during a case in 1999 when Jack Kevorkian was sentenced to a ten to twenty-five tear prison term for giving fatal medication to a patient (Ã¢â¬Å"Facts and Statistics on EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ 1). Although it is illegal in most sta tes, in some cases euthanasia can be done non-voluntarily (Ã¢â¬Å"Pros and Cons- EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ 1). The non-voluntary option presents doctors with too much power; a life should not be taken because it is no longer convenient or cost efficient. The power then given to the doctors would provide the insurance companies with an opportunity to put undue pressure on the physicians to avoid heroic measures and to end life prematurely simply to save money or avoid hassles. Euthanasia is suicide and should not be legal because it devalues human life. Psychologists agree those making the decision to commit suicide are not in sane mental places. Technically the law states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Every human being of adult years and sound mind has a right to determineShow MoreRelatedIs It Life Over Death?1620 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesValuing Life Over Death Life should always be the sovereign choice for all patients questioning whether life or death is best, even if the physical and mental suffering is extreme. Euthanasia is a topic that has been speculated all over the world for several years. It is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëdying wellÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëgood deathÃ¢â¬â¢ in Greek (Ahmed 306), and it was discovered to help give patients another way to ease their pain and suffering. It has only been legalized in four states and three countries, but has been consideredRead MoreOpinions on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide1347 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Opinions of euthanasia and assisted suicide vary by country to country, and only a few nations permit euthanasia in the case of terminally ill patients (van der Heide et. al., 2007, p. 1957). The public discourse surrounding the ethical, and subsequently legal status of euthanasia is frequently heated and somewhat polarized, because the debate cuts to the very heart of notions of human rights and e thics. Unfortunately, this only tends to further obscure the issue at hand, which is in reality a fairlyRead MoreEuthanasia Should Not Be Legal959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIs it better to be dead than sick or disabled? Who decides when it is times for us to go? In the case of Earle Spring, his life depends on the court order. Earle Spring was an old man whose mental and physical health declined as he aged. The doctors kept him on a dialysis machine to keep him alive. Not too long after his condition began to worsen, his family requested him to be removed from the treatment and let him die peace fully because they thought that Earle Spring would not want to live asRead MoreEuthanasia1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLegalizing Euthanasia 1 Euthanasia is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals in a relatively painless way for reasons of mercyÃ¢â¬ . (Unknown, 2012) Euthanasia ends the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ life by either lethal injection or the suspension of medical treatment. Euthanasia is not legalized in many places. When it comes to the debate of Euthanasia, there are more arguments on why it should be legalized than why it should stay illegal. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAssisted Suicide And Its Effects On Society1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshelping a person who is helplessly ill to end his or her own life. This issue is a sensitive topic, as medical sciences discover new ways to prolong life. There are many viewpoints in assisted suicide, which include strong supporters and opponents. IÃ¢â¬â¢d say IÃ¢â¬â¢m a supporter of assisted suicide because one, I have a chronic disease that may lead me to my demise later in my years, two, I believe that choosing my own fate is my right as a human, and three, the cost to live is far more expensive than itRead MoreEuthanasia And The Death Of Euthanasia1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesabolition of Euthanasia is upheld. Terminally ill patients who request to die formally in ways like the painless lethal injection are practicing to the act of Euthanasia. When living with an intolerable condition each and every day the feeling of death will cross your mind numerous of times. When facing the fact t hat the incurable condition will only lead to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s death is heartbreaking. Many patients are diagnosed in conditions where they only have a certain amount of time to life than the conditionRead MorePsysician Assicted Suicide1071 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesillness that causes problems with memory, thinking, and behavior. Very early in the diagnosis, she already believed that her life was over and did not want to deal with the upcoming side effects of the disease. To overcome this, she decided to end her life out of the thought that it would make it easier and less painful; however, many considered she basically cheated her way out of life. Yet, she did not want to commit this act fully herself out of fear. So, she contacted a doctor who at the time was involvedRead MoreEuthanasia Is Painless Killing Of A Patient1435 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEuthanasia is painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma, also means to take a deli berate action with the express intention of ending a life to relieve intractable suffering. Some interpret as the practice of ending life in a mercy killing, assisted suicide, and soft slow suicide. There are two main classifications of euthanasia. There is Voluntary euthanasia which is conducted with consent. Where the patient decides for themselves toRead MoreEuthanasi The Death With Dignity Act1312 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Euthanasia remains highly controversial in the U.S. because even a state such as Oregon which upholds the Death with Dignity Act Ã¢â¬Å"passed by a margin of 51% to 49% as stated by the Oregon Health Authority. Thus, even though Niles suggested that Oregon supports euthanasia, the Death with Dignity Act seemingly remains controversial because almost half of the population in Oregon is against Euthanasia, and there are stakeholders who still challenge its implementation. In the context of this paper,Read MoreMany years ago, in a small town in Michigan, a woman by the name of Janet Adkins was diagnosed with1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdiagnosis, she already believed that her life was over and did not want to deal with the upcoming side effects. To overcome this, she decided to end her life that was (to her) an easy and painless process; however, many considered she basically cheated her way out of life. Yet, she did not want to commit this act fully herself out of fear. So, she contacted Dr. Kevorkian (later on known as Dr. Death). She believed that is someone assisted her in ending her life early, it would not be technically called
Thursday, December 19, 2019
1.) What do the first-person accounts of Columbus and Champlain tell us about the European designs upon the New World lands and peoples, and in what specific phrasings do they express those designs? Christopher Columbus and Samuel De Champlain as early explorers and colonizers to the New World have specific agendas for the lands. Columbus was the first to travel to the New World and when he was there he wrote about his plan for the lands and its people. Columbus begins by colonizing these new lands through force and coercion of the Native American people. This leads to the first European design Columbus intends to enact and it is the conversion of the Native people to Christianity. Columbus states in his letter, Ã¢â¬Å"they might conceiveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦What sets their explanations apart? William Bradford and John Winthrop both travel to the New World to their respective colonies with a purpose for them in mind. Bradford writes about coming to the New World and documents the great trials they go through to get there. The establishment of Plymouth colony is seen as a way to serve GodÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose. Bradford sees the purpose of the Plymouth colony as a way to ensure religious freedom. As Bradford came to the New World in order to practice his religion freely and away from the persecution of England. Braford envisions a religiously free community that is agriculturally based and is humble in its economic status. Bradford also explains that everything that he and the other colonizers go through is for the future generations to prosper. Winthrop had a similar idea to that of Bradford. He too thought there was a religious purpose to his colony. Though his thoughts were slightly different from BradfordÃ¢â¬â¢s in the way that Winthrop talks about the social hierarchy in importance to the community. He speaks about how there is an unequal distribution of talents among the people. Though what Winthrop really preaches about in his writing is about love and looking forward to the future. He talks about how he wants his colony to be an example to all others in how the people and the social structure should be. He wants it to be the ideal community calling it the Ã¢â¬Å"Citty upon a hillÃ¢â¬ . Winthrop sees the goals of the
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about a Report on Employees as customers for Exploring service climate, employee patronage, and turnover ? Answer: Learning Log 1 As referred to in the first learning session that highlights on the concept of managing the individual and the team, it is my personal opinion that the session has been quite effective in attaining its objective of reaching out to the students like us and make us understand thoroughly about the importance of managerial skills or more specifically people management skills. This skill is increasingly needed by organizational managers to deal with all the members in the most appropriate manner and develop teams that are supportive and coordinated to a great extent. Some of the key emphases of the session were the existence of the external environmental factors that influence on the building up of management skills, the differences between the approaches such as coaching and mentoring to be used for developing management skills, understanding the systematic approaches to recruit, select and retain staff, and various other functionalities of organizational management (Diekman, 2007). The session imparted me the significant learning about the need to practice high-performing organizational cultures, the significant ways to achieve desired performance from the teams along with removal of generic barriers to effective employee engagement, and also about specific approaches to enhance the performance and commitment of employees in the organization. The learning session provided me with the experience of developing some essential managerial attribute requisites to understand professional practice, the ability to question principles, boundaries and practices. It enables me to think independently, creatively and analytically and also engaging in an imaginative manner into the innovative areas of investigation (Abston and Kupritz, 2011). The session was truly beneficial as it imparted me with the basic knowledge of what management is all about. Previously I had imagined management to be just a field that ensures arrangement of organizational resources to lead to the final p roductivity and profit. Now I know that my knowledge was incomplete. Management is much more than that. It is about human beings and the focus upon making people capable of performing in a combined manner to make their strengths effective and their weaknesses irrelevant. This is the reason the concept of management is quite critical and that everyone may not get the depth of it. The knowledge that I have gathered from the session would help me through my entire life to build some of the most essential managerial skills within myself that would enable me to grow up to a person that I have always objected to as an organizational manager (Abston and Kupritz, 2011). This would not only make me effective as a professional individual but also as a human being. I would acquire the most effective skills of being a peoples manager and develop supportive and effective teams within my organization to lead in the competitive environment. Learning Log 2 This learning section is another beneficial session that imparted a lot of good knowledge and information. This session of the course enabled to understand the real feel of being a manager. It is based on the principle that many learners aim at succeeding. They are generally capable of succeeding but simply lack the belief that they can do so. The session taught me about the true essence of being a manager, their roles in the business environment, the distinctions between managers and leaders, etc (Gamble, Lincoln and Adamson, 2007). The information is highly essential before getting into this field of management. Previously I had only little knowledge about the roles and responsibilities of a manager. Now, that this session has provided me with a big picture that a manager is responsible for fulfilling the particular purposes and mission of the organization he belongs to; he makes work even more productive and helps other members to achieve their goals; he also manages social impact s as well as social responsibilities. It emphasized on the Druckers Five operations for Managers, that it sets objectives to describe what needs to be done and executed; organizes and analyses the activities and creates organizational culture as well as selection of staffs; he motivates as well as communicates with the entire team and describe them their personal responsibilities; measures the performances delivered by the staff based on their goals; and dedicates increasingly to develop people into effective employees (Goksoy and Alayoglu, 2013). The learning session mean a valuable source of information for me as I learnt the interpersonal roles of managers as highlighted by Mintzberg. A manager has figurehead role, leader role, and liaison role. I became more aware with the concept of management that it is a social process that entails responsibility for the effective as well as economical planning and regulation of the enterprise operations with respect to the objectives of task s. This responsibility involves making decisions in determining plans as in using data to control performance as well as progress against plans (Shipper and Davy, 2002). It may be reflected that this learning session guided me through my goal of understanding the concept in a better way. Another significant focus of the session is the management philosophies that include mutual trust and respect, involvement and availability, positive action on an individual basis, culture of management, staff and customer satisfaction, recognition and credit, fair and equitable treatment, and lastly emphasis on results (Hailesilasie, 2009). It even imparted me with the knowledge about the Management Standards Centre that was responsible to draw up the National Occupational Standards for managers in the year 2004. The standards state the level of performance as expected in employment for managers. I learnt that the MSC aimed at helping development of skilled managerial workforce through a national r ecognized scheme of standards for managers approved by education providers as well as employers (Smith, 2005). Learning Log 3 The third learning session is all about managing teams by a manager. Teams play significant role in organizational deliverance. The session has been extremely useful and resourceful as it imparted with the learning. It highlights the distinctions between teams and groups along with the techniques for team development. The session provided me with the increased knowledge about managing multinational teams and also managing diverse groups within the organization. This session explained me about the factors that typically inhibit the designing, development as well as delivery of employee management skills (Houger, 2006). It also made me understand the business or legal or ethical rationale for a systematic approach towards employee management approaches. While through with the session learning, I learnt that teams would usually comprise of individuals with similar interests and complementary skills. I have learnt that teams must work together for achieving goals (Wickramasinghe and Dabe re, 2012). It emphasized that teams cannot complete the task without there being effective team members. This is also reflective that teams tend to respond towards challenges that are set by the organizational management, where management sets the goals. These have increased control over how they meet the objectives (Hutchinson and Purcell, 2010). The learning session has imparted with the knowledge that teams are considered to be basic performance units that most organizations possess to accomplish objectives. This is helpful for my personal knowledge as it would enable me to act exactly the manner I am supposed to within organizational context. The prior knowledge would ensure that I inculcate all the requite attributes of a team player before I expose myself to the professional front. The session enabled me to identify that as a team member my role would be to enhance self-awareness as well as personal effectiveness (ngel Caldern Molina et al., 2014). I may foster mutual trust as well as understanding amidst members. I would also successfully improve my strategy of selecting teams and building concrete teams. I am well aware that each of the team members would possess some weakness or drawbacks which are inevitable; but this would not mean that the team would become ineffective (Ippolito, n.d.). It is important that the strengths are utilized in the most effective manner to reap its fruits. The session provided me with the knowledge about the virtual teams and how these operate to achieve objectives of effective performance. There are factors that are influential in the level of performances. It is beneficial to go through the session as it imparted me with the knowledge of teams and what are they like. Teams play major roles in framing the organizational functionalities and how there would contribute in organizational performances (Jeon, Younghwa, 2010). The session imparted me the significant learning about the need to practice high-performing organizatio nal cultures, the significant ways to achieve desired performance from the teams along with removal of generic barriers to effective employee engagement, and also about specific approaches to enhance the performance and commitment of employees in the organization (Lauer, 2003). The learning session provided me with the experience of developing some essential managerial attribute requisites to understand professional practice, the ability to question principles, boundaries and practices. It enables me to think independently, creatively and analytically and also engaging in an imaginative manner into the innovative areas of investigation. Learning Log 4 This learning session highlights upon the concept of delegation and managing of own manager and that too of self-managing capabilities. It emphasizes on aspects like delegation concept, effective delegation, managers expectations, strategies of managers to manage awkward people and also managing self at the same time. It gives a first-hand experience of what delegation looks like and how it must be conducted (Leigh, 2014). It benefits me as I get to learn a lot about the process of delegating responsibilities and how can it be achieved effectively. It is important to realize that a manager needs to remain accountable for the actions of the employees, the staffs must know what they are expected to perform; they must be capable of delivering performances effectively along with adequate knowledge about related risks and how to counteract those. The session is helpful as I understood the various expectations that the managers hold of their members and these may be achieved in the long ru n. I found the session very interesting since I even got to know about the various issues that organizational managers face in their course of employment (Ming Chow and Kleiner, 2002). This would guide me to improvise on my perspective and attitude and act accordingly while communicating with them. It imparted me with the learning about the ways to improve the dealings with all aggressive managers or supervisors. It taught me to inculcate the positive and assertive behaviors and attitude. . The learning session has imparted with the knowledge that teams are considered to be basic performance units that most organizations possess to accomplish objectives. This is helpful for my personal knowledge as it would enable me to act exactly the manner I am supposed to within organizational context. The prior knowledge would ensure that I inculcate all the requite attributes of a team player before I expose myself to the professional front (Passarelli, 2010). The session enabled me to identif y that as a team member my role would be to enhance self-awareness as well as personal effectiveness. The knowledge that I have gathered from the session would help me through my entire life to build some of the most essential managerial skills within myself that would enable me to grow up to a person that I have always objected to as an organizational manager. This would not only make me effective as a professional individual but also as a human being. The session was truly beneficial as it imparted me with the basic knowledge of what management is all about (Rudman and Phelan, 2007). Previously I had imagined management to be just a field that ensures arrangement of organizational resources to lead to the final productivity and profit. Now I know that my knowledge was incomplete. References Abston, K. and Kupritz, V. (2011). Employees as customers: Exploring service climate, employee patronage, and turnover.Perf. Improvement Qrtly, 23(4), pp.7-26. ngel Caldern Molina, M., Manuel Hurtado Gonzlez, J., Palacios Florencio, B. and Luis Galn Gonzlez, J. (2014). Does the balanced scorecard adoption enhance the levels of organizational climate, employees commitment, job satisfaction and job dedication?.Management Decision, 52(5), pp.983-1010. Cunningham, G., Bergman, M. and Miner, K. (2014). Interpersonal Mistreatment of Women in the Workplace.Sex Roles, 71(1-2), pp.1-6. Diekman, A. (2007). Negotiating the Double Bind: Interpersonal and Instrumental Evaluations of Dominance.Sex Roles, 56(9-10), pp.551-561. Gamble, J., Lincoln, M. and Adamson, B. (2007). A case study of occupational therapy managers in NSW: Roles, responsibilities and work satisfaction.Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 56(2), pp.122-131. Goksoy, A. and Alayoglu, N. (2013). The Impact of Perception of Performance Appraisal and Distributive Justice Fairness on Employees' Ethical Decision Making in Paternalist Organizational Culture.Perf. Improvement Qrtly, 26(1), pp.57-79. Hailesilasie, G. (2009). Determinants of public employees' performance: evidence from Ethiopian public organizations.Int J Productivity Perf Mgmt, 58(3), pp.238-253. Houger, V. (2006). Trends of employee performance. Collaborative effort between managers and employees.Perf. Improv., 45(5), pp.26-31. Hutchinson, S. and Purcell, J. (2010). Managing ward managers for roles in HRM in the NHS: overworked and under-resourced.Human Resource Management Journal, 20(4), pp.357-374. Ippolito, F. (n.d.). Takeover Defenses, Firm-Specific Skills and Managerial Entrenchment.SSRN Journal. Jeon, Younghwa, (2010). Research Of Employees Organizational Commitment And Vocational Ethical Behavior.Journal of Ethics, 1(79), pp.53-78. Lauer, M. (2003). Tools of the trade: Motivating employees.Perf. Improv., 42(5), pp.38-40. Leigh, D. (2014). The Relationships Among Generativity, Values, Individual Differences, and Commitment to an Ideal Vision.Perf Improvement Qrtly, 27(2), pp.7-34. Ming Chow, C. and Kleiner, B. (2002). How to differentiate essential job duties from marginal job duties.Managerial Law, 44(1/2), pp.121-127. Passarelli, G. (2010). Employees skills and Organisational Commitment.International Business Research, 4(1). Rudman, L. and Phelan, J. (2007). The Interpersonal Power of Feminism: Is Feminism Good for Romantic Relationships?.Sex Roles, 57(11-12), pp.787-799. Shipper, F. and Davy, J. (2002). A model and investigation of managerial skills, employees' attitudes, and managerial performance.The Leadership Quarterly, 13(2), pp.95-120. Smith, G. (2005). Communication skills are critical for internal auditors.Managerial Auditing Journal, 20(5), pp.513-519. Wickramasinghe, V. and Dabere, S. (2012). Effects of performance-based financial incentives on work performance: A study of technical-level employees in the private sector in Sri Lanka.Perf. Improvement Qrtly, 25(3), pp.37-51.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
My Desires And Commitment For A College Education My Desires for and Commitment to a college Education My Desires to go to college and to get a Degree began many years ago when I was in the fifth grade and my teacher kept telling me that I would need a college education if I wanted to be successful in this lifetime. I want to make a commitment to college because I want to succeed in the business world, have a successful job and I want to set a good example for me brothers and sisters I first want to first make a commitment to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University because I want to learn more about the business world and a clear understanding of the whole stock market. In addition, I wanted to learn the different ways that different businesses can operate, with different countries around the world. Handling all kinds of business transactions, sending this and that to here and there at a certain time, and what the CEO of the business had to go through with, and all of the effort that it took for them to finally began their own business. I also feel that what I have learned here in the Coral Reef Senior High Business and Finance Academy, has encouraged me to continue to learn more about businesses throughout the world and that it will put me ahead of some things that most students have not learned, even thought I have a lot to find out. I also want to go to college because I think that it would help me pursue a very successful job after I am finish with my college education. I have learned by observing others that the people who are making the money in this world today started their education in the many colleges around the world. In addition, I have learned that when you have different degrees from college, that it looks good on your resume when you go to job interviews. Moreover, when you want to work for someone's business they are looking to hire someone who they feel has the knowledge of a college education because they feel that they would know a lot more about the business world. Because all businesses have to compete, and they are not going to hire no dummy to mess up their opportunities of making money. Therefore, the person who only has a high school education cannot contribute that of a person who is a college graduate. To go to college and graduate has been a goal for me because of one thing, the example that was set by sister, and my cousin who recently graduated from college. The same example that they set for is the same one that I want to set for my little sister and brothers. To always do your best and to strive of nothing but the best. As a freshman in high school, I would always sit back and watch as my sister tried her hardest to do her best in school. To actually put time in her work, and to accomplish her goals so that she could go to college and get her degree. Now as the years past and time change I see that I have to follow that path and set the same example for my little brothers and sisters so that they to can have the same success that she has, that I have, and hopefully they will have. Education